|Species Authority||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Summary||Status: vulnerable (Category II), decreasing in number. It is very susceptible to anthropogenic influences. This very large swan was once widespread in Kazakstan, but now can be found in only 5 or 6 places in central, northern and southeast Kazakstan. The whooper swan lives on large la-kes with suitable aquatic plants in which to hide its massive nest. It seldom lives near human settlements. The greatest number of birds is found in wintering sites on the Caspian coastal plain. Since 1983, the number of whooper swans has decreased due to changes in climate, anthropogenic transformation of habitat, poaching and human activities. This species is being successfully bred in the Almaty Zoo. Pro-tective measures have not been established.|
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